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Table 1 Categories of risk groups for venous thromboembolism in inpatients

From: Use of venous thromboprophylaxis and adherence to guideline recommendations: a cross-sectional study

Low risk groups Minor surgery (<30 min); no risk factor other than age Major surgery (>30 min); age < 40 years; no other risk factors1,2 Minor trauma or medical illness
Moderate risk groups Major general, urological, gynaecological, cardiothoracic, vascular, or neurological surgery; age ≥ 40 years or other risk factor1,2 Major medical illness: heart or lung disease, cancer, inflammatory bowel disease Major trauma or burns Minor surgery, trauma or illness in patients with previous deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or thrombophilia
High risk groups Fracture or major orthopaedic surgery of pelvis, hip, or lower limb Major pelvic or abdominal surgery for cancer Major surgery, trauma, or illness in patients with previous deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or thrombophilia Lower limb paralysis (for example, hemiplegic stroke, paraplegia) Major lower limb amputation
  1. 1 Risk factors according to patients factors: age, obesity, immobility (bed rest over 4 days), high dose oestrogen therapy, previous deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, thrombophilia (deficiency of antithrombin III, protein C, or protein S, antiphospholipid antibody or lupus anticoagulant) 2 Risk factor according to disease or surgical procedure: trauma or surgery, malignancy (especially pelvic, abdominal, metastasic), hearth failure, recent myocardial infarction, paralysis of lower limb(s), infection, inflammatory bowel disease, nephrotic syndrome, polycythaemia, paraproteinaemia, paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria, Behçet's disease, homocystinaemia.