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Table 1 Summary of selected therapeutic approaches using replacement of specific anticoagulation and fibrinolytic proteins to treat DIC. This table is based on a PubMed search using the key words: "Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation", "Therapy for DIC", "Animal experimentation on DIC" and "Neonate or Newborn." A representative selection was chosen from a total of 98 papers in the period 1970 to 2005 to give an overview of the literature on this subject.

From: Antithrombin III (AT) and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (R-TPA) used singly and in combination versus supportive care for treatment of endotoxin-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in the neonatal pig

Subject Mortality Rate N Therapeutic Factor Provoking Factor Outcome Reference
Coagulation Pathway
Children not addressed 4 Protein C meningococcemia reversed organ dysfunction [16]
Infants, adolescents 25% 8 Protein C meningococcemia restored micro-circulation [17]
Children 1 mo-5 yr 17% 6 AT sepsis, carcinoma, Reye's normalized coagulation studies [18]
Newborns 40% 10 AT, heparin sepsis improved coagulation [22]
Child 100% 1 AT, Protein C Unknown, ARDS stopped bleeding [19]
Baboons 67–100% 3 Protein C E. coli organisms prevented coagulopathy, lethal effects [25]
Adult pigs not addressed 16 AT E. coli endotoxin Improved MAP, SVR [23]
Guinea pigs 0% with Tx 58 Antithrombin Concentrate & LMWH S. aureus isolates Decreased fibrin deposits, improved survival [26]
Adult pigs Not addressed   AT LPS decreased DIC, improved survival [21]
Adult pigs Not addressed 21 AT LPS reduced effusion, edema [27]
Newborn and 3 wk old piglets Not Addressed >>16/age group & dose Heparin 125I-Fibrinogen ↑ AT conc. Improved the antithrombotic effects of heparin [28]
Fibrinolytic Pathway
Infant, 4 mo 0% N 1 R-TPA meningococcemia improved organ perfusion, cardiac performance [24]
Infants 0% 2 R-TPA Meningococcemia Improved micro-circulation [20]
Combined Coagulation and Fibrinolytic Pathways
Adult rabbits 70 → 40% R-TPA alone, 70 → 0% both factors N R-TPA, R-hirudin endotoxin Improved hemostatic markers, decreased fibrin deposits [11]
  1. Legend: ARDS Adult respiratory distress syndrome
  2. E. Coli Escherichia Coli
  3. kg kilogram
  4. LMWH Low molecular weight heparin
  5. MAP Mean Arterial Pressure
  6. SVR Systemic Vascular Resistance
  7. S. aureus Staphylococcal aureus
  8. Tx Therapy
  9. R-hirudin Recombinant Hirudin
  10. N Subject number