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Table 2 Factors influencing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in SLE patients

From: Systemic lupus erythematosus and thrombosis

SLE-related factors Effects
TNF-alpha, MCP-1, IL-6, kidney disease Dyslipidemia worsening, dysfunctional piHDL production
ICAM, VEGF, vWF, VCAM overexpression Pro-aggregation/pro-thrombotic behaviour
Acute phase reactants elevation Tissue damage
INF-alpha elevation Endothelial damage, pro-thrombotic behaviour
Neutrophil extra-cellular traps Vascular damage/pro-thrombotic behaviour
IL-17, IL-12, IL-18 elevation, IgG overexpression Pro-inflammatory
Cystatin C Early kidney damage marker, pro-inflammatory
SS-A/SS-B positivity profile, photosensibility Higher risk of CVD
Medications Effects
Corticosteroids Higher risk of CVD
Antimalarial (OH-chloroquine) Anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-dyslipidemic
Mycophenolate mofetil Lower immune activity in carotid plaque, protective
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (atorvastatin) Fewer autoantibodies and improvement of kidney function in animal models, to be confirmed in humans
NSAIDs Higher risk of CVD (less with naproxene)