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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics across three categories of blood sodium levels

From: Could sodium imbalances predispose to postoperative venous thromboembolism? An analysis of the NSQIP database

  Sodium (mEq/L)  
  < 135 135–145 > 145 p-value
  (n = 87,476) (n = 1,010,167) (n = 11,061)  
Age 61.82 ± 16.52 57.29 ± 16.65 63.38 ± 15.89 < 0.0001
  < 50 19,723 (22.6) 316,094 (31.3) 2015 (18.2) < 0.0001
 50–64 26,535 (30.3) 330,181 (32.7) 3500 (31.6)
 65–79 27,788 (31.8) 271,429 (26.9) 3653 (33.0)
  ≥ 80 13,430 (15.4) 92,463 (9.2) 1893 (17.1)
Sex, female 44,389 (50.9) 570,528 (56.6) 6142 (55.6) < 0.0001
Race, White 66,224 (84.8) 759,216 (84.6) 7777 (78.0) < 0.0001
Surgery type
 General surgery 54,423 (62.2) 656,018 (64.9) 7529 (68.1) < 0.0001
 Gynecology 1503 (1.7) 35,143 (3.5) 242 (2.2)
 Neurosurgery 2234 (2.6) 26,292 (2.6) 262 (2.4)
 Orthopedics 6831 (7.8) 87,304 (8.6) 782 (7.1)
 Otolaryngology (ENT) 922 (1.1) 15,953 (1.6) 206 (1.9)
 Plastics 615 (0.7) 12,522 (1.2) 150 (1.4)
 Thoracic 1289 (1.5) 10,221 (1.0) 128 (1.2)
 Urology 2400 (2.7) 39,573 (3.9) 361 (3.3)
 Vascular 15,853 (18.1) 116,611 (11.5) 1317 (11.9)
 Cardiac surgery 1404 (1.6) 10,524 (1.0) 83 (0.8)
Principal anesthesia technique, general 80,842 (92.4) 929,863 (92.1) 10,238 (92.6) < 0.0001
ASA classification
 I-II 25,653 (29.4) 512,018 (50.8) 3642 (33.0) < 0.0001
 III 45,074 (51.7) 422,264 (41.9) 4666 (42.3)
 IV-V 16,531 (18.9) 73,419 (7.3) 2721 (24.7)
Wound classification, dirty/infected 17,210 (19.7) 59,804 (5.9) 1163 (10.5) < 0.0001
Inpatient status 74,600 (85.3) 704,245 (69.7) 8451 (76.4) < 0.0001
Emergency case 25,053 (28.6) 123,927 (12.3) 2396 (21.7) < 0.0001
Transfusion in 72 h before surgery 1992 (2.3) 8644 (0.9) 643 (5.8) < 0.0001
Do not resuscitate (DNR) status 1601 (1.8) 6425 (0.6) 306 (2.8) < 0.0001
Functional health status before surgery
 Independent 73,530 (84.2) 952,051 (94.4) 8620 (78.1) < 0.0001
 Partially dependent 10,052 (11.5) 42,984 (4.3) 978 (8.9)
 Totally dependent 3708 (4.3) 14,080 (1.4) 1439 (13.0)
Dyspnea 13,284 (15.2) 106,592 (10.6) 1755 (15.9) < 0.0001
CHF 30 days before surgery 2530 (2.9) 9234 (0.9) 443 (4.0) < 0.0001
History of angina 1 month before surgery 1579 (1.8) 10,498 (1.0) 163 (1.5) < 0.0001
History of MI 6 months before surgery 1650 (1.9) 7518 (0.7) 267 (2.4) < 0.0001
Previous PCI 7353 (8.4) 61,587 (6.1) 881 (8.0) < 0.0001
Previous cardiac surgery 8133 (9.3) 59,855 (5.9) 948 (8.6) < 0.0001
Hypertension requiring medication 55,678 (63.7) 510,100 (50.5) 6682 (60.4) < 0.0001
History of revascularization/amputation for peripheral vascular disease 8298 (9.5) 40,414 (4.0) 580 (5.2) < 0.0001
Smoking within 1 year 22,555 (25.8) 197,346 (19.5) 2045 (18.5) < 0.0001
Current pneumonia 1537 (1.8) 4815 (0.5) 514 (4.7) < 0.0001
History of severe COPD 8372 (9.6) 52,570 (5.2) 967 (8.7) < 0.0001
Ventilator dependent 1926 (2.2) 7756 (0.8) 1193 (10.8) < 0.0001
Ascites 2427 (2.8) 6325 (0.6) 286 (2.6) < 0.0001
Esophageal varices 302 (0.4) 1017 (0.1) 27 (0.2) < 0.0001
Acute renal failure 1800 (2.1) 5066 (0.5) 336 (3.0) < 0.0001
Currently on dialysis 4758 (5.4) 18,196 (1.8) 353 (3.2) < 0.0001
Impaired sensorium 2018 (2.3) 6524 (0.7) 660 (6.0) < 0.0001
Coma > 24 h 136 (0.2) 596 (0.1) 99 (0.9) < 0.0001
History of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) 3662 (4.2) 31,358 (3.1) 421 (3.8) < 0.0001
CVA/stroke with neurological deficit 3432 (3.9) 24,497 (2.4) 630 (5.7) < 0.0001
CVA/stroke with no neurological deficit 2941 (3.4) 21,936 (2.2) 345 (3.1) < 0.0001
Tumor involving CNS 498 (0.6) 3703 (0.4) 62 (0.6) < 0.0001
Bleeding disorders 9989 (11.4) 57,672 (5.7) 1195 (10.8) < 0.0001
> 10% loss body weight in previous 6 months 4158 (4.8) 19,804 (2.0) 376 (3.4) < 0.0001
Disseminated cancer 3694 (4.2) 21,246 (2.1) 329 (3.0) < 0.0001
Chemotherapy ≤30 days pre-operative 2051 (2.3) 14,897 (1.5) 239 (2.2) < 0.0001
Radiotherapy in last 90 days 1011 (1.2) 7705 (0.8) 100 (0.9) < 0.0001
BMI 28.40 ± 8.15 30.31 ± 8.42 29.57 ± 8.30 < 0.0001
  < 18.5 4085 (4.9) 20,342 (2.1) 343 (3.2) < 0.0001
 18.5–24.9 27,699 (33.1) 249,205 (25.3) 2895 (27.3)
 25.0–29.9 24,643 (29.4) 300,443 (30.5) 3209 (30.3)
 30.0–34.9 13,555 (16.2) 192,841 (19.6) 2068 (19.5)
  ≥ 35.0 13,716 (16.4) 221,151 (22.5) 2083 (19.7)
Diabetes mellitus with oral agents or insulin 23,275 (26.6) 167,543 (16.6) 2174 (19.7) < 0.0001
Alcohol > 2 drinks/day 2 wks before admission 4925 (5.6) 25,735 (2.6) 323 (2.9) < 0.0001
Open wound/wound infection 11,046 (12.6) 43,031 (4.3) 1120 (10.1) < 0.0001
Steroid use for chronic condition 4717 (5.4) 32,860 (3.3) 591 (5.3) < 0.0001
Systemic sepsis 21,684 (25.0) 72,666 (7.3) 2411 (21.9) < 0.0001
Prior operation within 30 days 6239 (7.1) 25,921 (2.6) 960 (8.7) < 0.0001