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Table 4 Stratified analyses for associations between blood sodium levels and VTE outcome

From: Could sodium imbalances predispose to postoperative venous thromboembolism? An analysis of the NSQIP database

  Sodium (mEq/L)
  < 135 135–145 > 145
  (n = 87,476) (n = 1,010,167) (n = 11,061)
Thromboembolism 1.43 (1.36–1.52) Reference 1.57 (1.38–1.78)
Age
  < 50 (n = 337,832) 1.68 (1.45–1.94) Reference 1.65 (1.14–2.38)
 50–64 (n = 360,216) 1.65 (1.49–1.83) Reference 1.42 (1.11–1.82)
 65–79 (n = 302,870) 1.28 (1.17–1.41) Reference 1.67 (1.37–2.03)
  ≥ 80 (n = 107,786) 1.17 (1.02–1.33) Reference 1.40 (1.06–1.83)
Sex
 Male (n = 484,893) 1.37 (1.27–1.48) Reference 1.54 (1.29–1.84)
 Female (n = 623,811) 1.48 (1.36–1.60) Reference 1.57 (1.31–1.88)
Surgical specialty
 Non-orthopedic (n = 1,013,787) 1.47 (1.39–1.56) Reference 1.62 (1.43–1.85)
 Orthopedic (n = 94,917) 1.10 (0.89–1.37) Reference 0.71 (0.34–1.51)
Steroid use for chronic condition
 No (n = 1,070,536) 1.45 (1.37–1.54) Reference 1.66 (1.46–1.89)
 Yes (n = 38,168) 1.26 (1.06–1.51) Reference 0.86 (0.53–1.39)
BMI
  < 18.5 (n = 24,770) 1.28 (1.00–1.63) Reference 1.68 (0.92–3.07)
 18.5–24.9 (n = 279,799) 1.51 (1.36–1.66) Reference 1.52 (1.19–1.95)
 25.0–29.9 (n = 328,295) 1.44 (1.30–1.60) Reference 1.50 (1.17–1.93)
 30.0–34.9 (n = 238,890) 1.30 (1.15–1.48) Reference 1.45 (1.12–1.89)
  ≥ 35.0 (n = 236,950) 1.52 (1.32–1.74) Reference 1.82 (1.39–2.38)
Presence of active cancera
 No (n = 1,068,670) 1.42 (1.34–1.51) Reference 1.53 (1.34–1.74)
 Yes (n = 40,034) 1.25 (1.04–1.49) Reference 1.55 (1.29–1.85)
Chemotherapy for malignancy ≤30 days pre-surgery
 No (n = 1,091,517) 1.42 (1.34–1.51) Reference 1.57 (1.38–1.78)
 Yes (n = 17,187) 1.67 (1.29–2.16) Reference 1.57 (0.79–3.13)
  1. aConsidered positive if any of the following are present: disseminated cancer, tumor involving CNS or chemotherapy for malignancy ≤30 days pre-surgery