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Table 1 Differential diagnosis of blue toe syndrome

From: Blue toe syndrome caused by emboli from anomalous left atrial septal pouch thrombus: a case report

Emboli from cardiac and arterial systemHypercoagulability
disorders
Peripheral vascular pathology
Left atrial septal pouch
Atrial fibrillation
Left ventricular aneurysm
Cholesterol crystal
Penetrating ulcers or Aneurysms of the aorto-iliac-femoral arterial system
Cardiac/vascular tumors (myxoma)
Valvular heart disease
Endocarditis
Iatrogenic injury
Antiphospholipid syndrome
Malignancy
Thrombocytopenic purpura
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
Warfarin skin necrosis
Cryoglobulinemia
Myeloproliferative disorders
Raynaud’s phenomenon
Perniosis
Frostbite
Infectious and noninfectious inflammation
Medication-induced vasoconstriction
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