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Table 5 Diagnostic Criteria Comparison between acute DIC and EA-VMTD-associated HC

From: Disseminated intravascular coagulation: new identity as endotheliopathy-associated vascular microthrombotic disease based on in vivo hemostasis and endothelial molecular pathogenesis

1 Diagnostic criteria of “acute DIC” (conceptual)
Underlying disease
 - Sepsis and other critical illnesses (including COVID-19)
Character of blood clots
 - Fibrin clots or microthromobi (different claims in the literature)
Pathogenetic mechanism: consumption coagulopathy via TF path
(resulting in consumption of platelets, fibrinogen, FVIII and FV.)
Coagulation test results
 - Thrombocytopenia
 - Decreased fibrinogen, FVIII, FV (due to consumption)
 - Normal FVII (not consumed)
 - Prolonged PT
 - Prolonged aPTT
 - Positive D-dimer/FDP (due to fibrinolysis)
Hematologic manifestations
 - Thromobocytopenia
 - MAHA
2 Diagnostic criteria of EA-VMTD-associated hepatic coagulopathy
Underlying disease
 - Sepsis and other critical illnesses (including COVID-19)
Character of blood clots
 - Always microthrombi
Pathogenetic mechanism: EA-VMTD via ULVWF path and hepatic involvement (resulting in consumption of platelets, endothelial exocytosis of ULVWF/FVIII, and decreased liver dependent factors.)
Coagulation test results
 - Thrombocytopenia
 - Increased fibrinogen in early stage and decreased fibrinogen in late stage of liver disease (from liver necrosis in early stage and decreased synthesis in late stage)
 - Markedly increased ULVWF/VWF/VWF expression (due to exocytosis)
 - Markedly increased FVIII activity (due to exocytosis)
 - Markedly decreased FVII activity (due to liver damage)
 - Mildly decreased FV (due to liver damage)
 - Prolonged PT
 - Prolonged aPTT
 - Positive D-dimer/FDP (due to live tissue damage and fibrinogenolysis)
Hematologic manifestations
 - Thrombocytopenia
 - MAHA
  1. Abbreviation: ARDS Acute respiratory distress syndrome, DIC” False disseminated intravascular coagulation, DIT Disseminated intravascular microthrombosis, HC Hepatic coagulopathy, MAHA Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, MODS Multiorgan dysfunction syndrome, aPTT Activated partial thromboplastin time, PT Prothrombin time, SIRS Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, VWF Von Willebrand factor multimers, ULVWF Unusually large von Willebrand factor multimers, EA-VMTD Endotheliopathy-associated vascular microthrombotic disease