Skip to main content

Table 1 Case reports and case series of unprovoked internal jugular vein thrombosis

From: Unprovoked internal jugular vein thrombosis: a case report and literature review

Author, journal, year [ref] Country Nba Age Gender (F/M) Thrombosis location Associated factors Imag-ing Symptoms Treatment (type and length) Complication
Payrard et al. 2020 Switzerland 1 52 F Left IJV   US + CT Painful neck swelling Intravenous heparin for 5 days and acenocoumarol prolonged /
Algoblan et al., Cureus, 2020 [7] Saudi Arabia 1 66 M Right IJV, subclavian and axillary vein Liver transplant US + CT Right chest, flank and back pain Enoxaparin 1 mg/kg twice daily /
Pratt et al., J Thromb Thrombolysis, 2020 [8] USA 1 21 F Left IJV, transverse and sigmoid sinus Nitrous oxide abuse MRI Confusion, hallucinations, weakness and falls LMWH (duration not describe) /
Agrawal et al., Cureus, 2019 [9] USA 1 64 F Right IJV and subclavian vein / US Right upper extremity and right facial swelling Intravenous heparin for 2 days and Apixaban for 6 months /
Hahn et al., Auris Nasus Larynx, 2019 [10] Germany 3/41a 50, 54, 78 2 F, 1 M Internal jugular vein (side not describe) 3 idiopathic, 22 paraneoplastic (compression and distant disease), 14 inflammatory diseases, 2 central-venous catheter US + CT Asymptomatic Apixaban 5 mg (duration not describe) / Rivaroxaban 20 mg for 2 months / Rivaroxaban for 3 months /
Matsuda et al., eNeurologicalSci, 2018 [11] Japan 1 71 M Right IJV Pseudotumor cerebri and Lung cancer Veinography + US Not describe Warfarin, 3 mg/day /
Al-Zoubi, Vasc Health Risk Manag, 2018 [12] Jordan 1 44 F Right IJV Antiphospholipid syndrome US + CT Painful neck swelling LMWH for 3 months and long-term warfarin /
Jendoubi, Saudi J Anaesth, 2017 [13] Saudi Arabia 1 75 M Right IJV / US Exacerbation of COPD Not describe Pulmonary embolism
Toratani et al., Intern Med, 2017 [14] Japan 1 45 M Left IJV subclavian and brachiocephalic vein Gastric cancer US + CT Swelling of the left side of his neck and left upper limb Unfractionated heparin for 7 days and long-term Edoxaban (60 mg/day, orally) /
Nomura et al., Intern Med, 2016 [15] Japan 1 70 F Left IJV / CT Dyspnea Anticoagulation therapy for 2 weeks Pulmonary embolism
Bandara et al., J Med Case Rep, 2016 [16] Sri Lanka 1 75 M Left IJV, external jugular and brachiocephalic vein Prostate carcinoma US + CT Painless swelling of the left supraclavicular fossa Intravenous heparin and long-term oral warfarin /
Efe et al., Perfusion, 2015 [17] Turkey 1 19 F Right IJV / US + CT + MRI Pain and swelling of the right side of the neck Enoxaparin and warfarin for 6 months /
Onishi et al., Case Rep Nephrol Dial, 2015 [18] Japan 1 56 M Left IJV and subclavian vein Nephrotic syndrome CT Swelling of the upper limb Heparin and warfarin (duration not describe) /
Van den Broek et al., Neth J Med, 2014 [19] Netherlands 1 28 F Right IJV Borderline ovarian tumour US + MRI Mass in the right neck Tinzaparin 0.9 ml daily (duration not describe) /
Altintas et al., Case Rep Vasc Med, 2014 [20] Turkey 1 42 F Bilateral IJV Inherited coagulopathy (homozygous MTHFR mutation and protein C deficiency) US + MRI Asymptomatic LMWH and long-term warfarin Recurrent thrombosis (lower limb DVT)
Ghatak et al., J Anaesthesiol Clin Pharmacol, 2013 [21] India 1 21 F Right IJV and subclavian vein Homozygous Factor V Leiden mutation, activated factor C resistance and Dengue infection US Septic shock and encephalopathy Unfractionated heparin and warfarin (duration not describe) /
Papay et al., J Crohns Colitis, 2013 [22] Austria 1/157a NA NA IJV (side not describe) Inflammatory bowel disease Not describe Not describe Not describe Recurrent thrombosis (venous arm thrombosis)
Kunimasa et al., Intern Med, 2013 [23] Japan 1 70 F Left IJV Lung cancer (Trousseau’s syndrome) CT Painful swelling left side of the neck Not describe /
Honma et al., J Echocardiogr, 2011 [24] Japan 1 59 F Left internal jugular vein / US + CT Dizziness Oral warfarin (duration not describe) /
Ishida et al., J Neurosurg Spine, 2011 [25] Japan 1 56 F Left internal jugular vein Cervical spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma MRI + Angiography Pain of the back of the head and neck / (because of the hematoma) /
Gbaguidi et al., QJM, 2011 [26] France 5/29a NA NA 18/29 Left IJV 7/29 Right IJV 4/29 Bilateral IJV 24/29: secondary IJV 5/29: idiopathic IJV US + CT Cervical oedema, arm oedema, pain, erythrocyanosis, superficial varicose collateral veins 2 UFH, 7 LMWH, followed by oral anticoagulation (20), Median duration: 6 months 3/29: pulmonary embolism (secondary IJV) 12/29: post thrombotic syndrome (secondary IJV)
Serinken et al., Kaohsiung J Med Sci, 2010 [27] Turkey 1 31 F Right IJV / US + CT Painless swelling in the right anterior side of the neck LMWH and oral warfarin /
Snijders et al., Eur J Gynaecol Oncol, 2010 [28] Netherlands 1 52 F Right IJV Non-hodgkin’s lymphoma of both ovaries US + CT Swelling of the ride side of the neck UFH and oral coumarin (duration not describe) /
Handley et al., Int J Otolaryngol, 2010 [29] UK 1 30 M Right IJV vein and sigmoid sinus Collet-Sicard Syndrome secondary to IJV thrombosis CT + MRI Right sided neck pain, dysphagia and dysphonia Not describe /
Leibman et al., J Emerg Med, 2009 [30] Israel 1 31 F Right IJV Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome US Pain and swelling of the right side of the neck LMWH (duration not describe) /
Chlumsky et al., Acta Cardiol, 2009 [31] Czech Republic 1 61 M Right IJV / US Swelling of the right side of the face LMWH and warfarin for 6 months /
Pata et al., J Laryngol Otol, 2008 [32] Turkey 2 58, 46 F, M Left IJV Breast and lung cancer MRI / CT Painful swelling of the left side of the neck / Painless mass of the left neck and dyspnea UFH + oral VKA (duration not described) / No treatment because patient died of cancer /
Mori et al., Clin Appl Thromb Hemost, 2008 [33] Japan 1 16 F Left IJV, brachiocephalic and subclavian vein Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell lymphoma (Trousseau’s syndrome) CT General fatigue and dyspnea Dalteparin (duration not describe) /
Kikuchi et al., Br J Radiol, 2004 [34] Japan 1 56 M Left IJV and external jugular vein / CT + FDG-PET Swelling around the left parotid gland / (treated with antibiotics) /
Cheang et al., J Laryngol Otol, 2004 [35] UK 1 42 M Bilateral IJV Malignant lymphadenopathy US + CT Diffuse swelling and stiffness of the neck UFH (type and duration not describe) /
Unsal et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol, 2003 [36] Turkey 1 48 M Right IJV Lung and prostate cancer US + CT Pain and swelling of the right side of the neck UFH and oral coumarin (duration not describe) /
Khandekar et al., Angiology, 2003 [37] India 1 30 M Bilateral IJV Protein S Deficiency CT Swelling of face, neck and both upper limbs Anticoagulation + aspirin 150 mg/day /
Thomas et al., Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis, 2001 [38] UK 1 29 F Right IJV Protein S deficiency US Pain of the right side of the neck UFH and Dalterapin 6000 UI twice daily + aspirin 75 mg and Dalteparin 5000 UI twice daily (duration not describe) /
Van den Noortgate, Acta Clin Belg, 2000 [39] Belgium 1 88 F Right IJV Colorectal adenocarcinoma US + CT Pain and swelling of the side of the neck LMWH and oral anticoagulation (type not describe) for 3 months /
Todros et al., Hum Reprod, 1999 [40] Italy 1 30 F Left IJV, subclavian, axillary and humeral veins Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome US Pain and swelling of the left arm and neck Heparin (2 weeks) and warfarin (13 weeks) and back to heparin (5 weeks) /
Kalan et al., J Laryngol Otol, 1996 [41] UK 1 65 M Left IJV Squamous cell carcinoma (primary lesion not found) US + CT Hoarseness Heparin (type not describe) for 2 months (stopped because patient died) Death (related or not to IJV thrombosis?)
Holland et al., Aust N Z J Surg, 1996 [42] Australia 1 21 F Right IJV Antiphospholipid syndrome CT Pain and swelling of the right side of the neck Heparin (type not describe) and long-term oral warfarin /
Hines et al., Gynecol Oncol, 1995 [43] USA 1 49 F Left IJV + subclavian vein Ovarian and endometrial adenocarcinoma US + CT + MRI Pain and swelling of the left side of the neck Heparin + warfarin (duration not describe) Pulmonary embolism
Langlieb et al., Gynecol Oncol, 1992 [44] USA 1 46 F Left IJV Leiomyosarcoma of the omentum CT Pain of the left side of the neck Not describe Not describe
Carrington et al., Postgrad Med J, 1988 [45] UK 2 56, 59 F, M 1 Right IJV 1 Left IJV Invasive carcinoid and mesothelioma CT Painful and neck swelling Heparin and acenocoumarol (duration not describe) Patient with left IJV: extension to the left subclavian vein
Kennedy et al., Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 1987 [46] USA 1 77 F Left IJV / CT Nagging sensation of fullness in the inferior left side of her neck Heparin (type not describe) for 1 week and oral warfarin for 3 months /
  1. Search results = 197 (on 31.03.2020). Advanced Search Builder: spontaneous OR unprovoked OR idiopathic OR primary AND internal jugular vein thrombosis AND English[lang] Sort by: Best Match. Exclusion criteria: article not directly related to the topic. Exclusion’s criteria: papers non-directly linked with the topic, after death discovery, pediatric cases (< 16 years old), non-English papers
  2. NA not assessed, LMWH Low molecular weight heparin, UFH unfractionated heparin, VKA vitamin K anticoagulation
  3. a Number of cases of idiopathic cases