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Table 1 Characteristics of the clinical studies

From: Incidence of thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author Study design Country Patient population VTE Events/Total patients (%) Age, mean (SD)a Male sex,% a Anticoagulant prophylaxis Indication for CTPA CUS screening
Beun [14] Retrospective cohort Netherlands ICU 23/75 (30.7) VTE: 60.5 (min-max, 53–68) NR NR NR NR
Cui [15] Retrospective cohort China ICU 20/81 (24.7) VTE: 68.4 (9.1)
Non-VTE: 57.1 (14.3)
46 No CT, assumed in all patients Yes
Desborough [24] Retrospective Cohort UK ICU 11/79 (13.9) VTE: 54 (45–63)
No VTE: 59 (52–67)
73 Yes Clinical suspicion No
Fraissé [21] Retrospective cohort France ICU 31/92 (33.7) 61 (55–70)b 79 Yes Clinical suspicion No
Helms [2] Prospective cohort France ICU 28/150 (18.7) 63 (53–71) b 81.3 70% PD, 30% TD Clinical suspicion or rapid D-dimer elevation NR
Hippensteel [26] Retrospective cohort USA ICU 24/107 (22.4) VTE: 55 (13)
No VTE: 57 (17)
VTE: 14
No VTE: 39
NR Clinical suspicion No
Klok [16, 44] Retrospective cohort Netherlands ICU 68/184 (37) 64 (12) 76 Yes, adjust per BW
9% TD
Clinical suspicion No
Llitjos [8] Retrospective cohort France ICU 20/26 (76.9) 68 (51.5–74.5) b 77 31% PD, 69% TD Clinical suspicion Yes, 1st CDU on day 1–3 and 2nd CDU on day 7
Longchamp [19] Prospective cohort Switzerland ICU 8/25 (32) 68 (11) 64 Yes Clinical suspicion Yes, D5-D10
Nahum [23] Prospective cohort France ICU 27/34 (65) 62.2 (8.6) 78 Yes NR Yes
Poissy [3] Retrospective cohort France ICU 27/107 (25.2) PE: 57 (29–80) b PE: 59.1 91% PD, 9% TD Clinical suspicion Partially performed
Soumagne [22] Prospective cohort France and Belgium ICU 79/375 (21) 63.5 (10.1) 77 NR NR NR
Spiezia [20] Prospective cohort Italy ICU 5/30 (16.7) VTE: 67 (8)d 90d Yes NR NR
Zerwes [25] Prospective cohort Germany ICU 4/40 (10) 63.4 (18.1) 67.5 Yes NR Yes
Thomas [18] Retrospective cohort UK ICU 6/63 (9.5) 59 (13) 69 Yes, adjust per BW Clinical suspicion NR
Tavazzi [17] Retrospective cohort Italy ICU 10/54 (18.5) VTE: 68 (7) VTE: 83 Yes, adjust per BW NR No
Demelo-Rodríguez [27] Prospective cohort Spain Non-ICU 23/198 (11.6)
CUS done in 156
DVT: 66.7 (15.2)
No DVT: 68.4 (14.4)
DVT: 60.9
No DVT: 66.2
Yes, 98% NR Yes, d-dimer > 1000 & hospitalization > 48 h
Dubois-Silva [29] Retrospective cohort Spain Non-ICU 8/171 (4.9) PE: 67 (58–74)b 62.5 Yes Clinical suspicion Yes
Mazzaccaro [31] Retrospective cohort Italy Non-ICU 21/32 (65.6) 68.6 (12) 71.9 Yes All patients Yes
Mestre-Gómez [30] Retrospective cohort Spain Non-ICU 31/452 (6.9) PE: 65 (56–73)b 72 Yes, partial Clinical suspicion No
Zhang [28] Retrospective cohort China Non-ICU 67/159 (42.1)
CUS done in143
DVT: 67 (12)
No DVT: 59 (16)
51.7
DVT: 54.5
No DVT: 49.4
Yes, 37% Clinical suspicion Yes
Criel [34] Prospective cohort Belgium Inpatients Total: 82
ICU: 4/30 (13.3),
Ward: 2/52 (3.8)
ICU: 64.5 (11.8)
Non-ICU: 63.6 (14.4)
ICU: 67
Non-ICU: 54
Yes, adjust per BW Not done Yes
Koleilat [35] Retrospective case-control USA Inpatients 93/3403 (2.7)
CUS done in 846
DVT:59 (49–64)
No DVT 64 (53–73)
DVT: 61.1
No DVT:61 52.1
Yes, partial NR No
Logigiani [33] Retrospective cohort Italy Inpatients Total: 388
ICU: 8/61 (13.1)
Ward: 12/327 (3.7)
ICU: 61 (55–69)b
Ward: 68 (55–77)
68.0
ICU: 80.3
Ward: 65.7
ICU: 100%, Ward: 75%
41% PD, 21% ID, 23% TD
Clinical suspicion
or rapid increase in d-dimer
No
Middeldorp [9] Retrospective cohort Netherlands Inpatients Total:198
ICU: 39/75 (52)
Ward: 4/123 (3.3)
ICU: 62 (10)
Ward: 60 (16)
66
ICU: 77
Ward: 59
Yes, adjust per BW
84% PD
9.6% TD
Clinical suspicion
Sudden worsening hypoxemia
Yes, partial 28% of all
Maoe [4] Retrospective cohort China Inpatients Total: 214
Severe: 88
Non-severe: 126
Severe: 58.2 (15.0)
Non severe: 48.9 (14.7)
40.7
Severe: 50
Non severe: 34.1
NR NR NR
Wangc [32] Retrospective cohort China Inpatients Total: 88
Critical+severe: 20/63 (31.7)
Common: 0/25
Critical: 66.5 (61–71)b
Severe: 61.0 (53–66)
Common: 56 (42.5–66.5)
55.7
Critical: 70
Severe: 42.4
Common: 56
Yes, according to Padua risk score Clinical suspicion Yes, increased d-dimer
Xuc [10] Retrospective cohort China Inpatients Total: 138
Critical+severe: 3/15 (20)
Non-critical: 1/123 (0.8)
Critical: 60.07 (14.3)
Non-critical: 50.5 (16)
58.7
Critical: 80
Non-critical: 56
Yes
Critical 100%
Non-critical 21.5%
In those performed CUS Yes, all critically ill, high risk of VTE, high level d-dimer
  1. a All patients included in the study, b Median (IQR), c categorized patients on clinical severity, d of those 22 patients met the inclusion criteria of the study, e reported only arterial events, and CT Brain was performed according to clinical needs, BW Body weight, NR Not reported, ICU Intensive care unit, VTE Venous thromboembolism, PD Prophylactic dose, IT Intermediate dose, TD Therapeutic dose