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Table 1 Comparison among different randomized clinical trials assessing the efficacy and safety of DOACs in the treatment of cancer-associated VTE

From: Current status of treatment of cancer-associated venous thromboembolism

  SELECT-D [37] Hokusai VTE-Cancer [22] ADAM-VTE [44] Caravaggio [14]
Trial design Open-label, pilot Open-label, noninferiority Open-label, investigator-initiated Open-label, controlled, investigator-initiated, noninferiority
Number of patients 406 942 300 1155
DOACs Rivaroxaban (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks, followed by 20 mg once daily for 2–6 months) Edoxaban (dalteparin for at least 5 days, followed by edoxaban 60 mg once daily, for 12 months) Apixaban (10 mg twice daily for the first week, followed by 5 mg twice daily for 6 months) Apixaban (10 mg twice daily for the first week, followed by 5 mg twice daily for 6 months)
Comparators LMWH (daltaparin 200 IU/kg once daily for the first month, followed by 150 IU/kg daily for 2–6 months) LMWH (daltaparin 200 IU/kg once daily for the first month, followed by 150 IU/kg daily for 12 months) LMWH (daltaparin 200 IU/kg once daily for the first month, followed by 150 IU/kg daily for 6 months) LMWH (dalteparin 200 IU/kg once daily for the first for the first month, followed by 150 IU/kg once daily for 6 months)
Inclusion criteria Patients with active cancer and symptomatic or incidental PE, or symptomatic lower extremity proximal DVT Patients with active cancer and acute symptomatic or incidental proximal DVT and/or PE Patients with active cancer and acute extremity DVT, PE, splanchnic or cerebral vein thrombosis Patients with active cancer and acute symptomatic or incidental proximal DVT or PE
Cancer types Solid and hematologic malignancies (other than basal-cell or squamous-cell skin carcinoma) Gastrointestinal, lung, urogenital, breast, hematological, and gynecological cancer Solid and hematologic malignancies Cancers other than basal-cell or squamous-cell carcinoma of the skin, primary brain tumor, intracerebral metastases, or acute leukemia
Primary outcome measurements VTE recurrence The composite of VTE recurrence or major bleeding Episode of major bleeding VTE recurrence
Primary outcome results Rivaroxaban 4% (95% CI, 2 to 9%); Dalteparin 11% (95% CI, 7 to 16%); (HR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.99) Edoxaban 19.4%; Dalteparin 15.0%; (RD, 4.4%; 95%CI, − 4.1 to 12.8%) Apixaban 0%; Dalteparin 1.4%;(P = 0.138) Apixaban 5.6%; Dalteparin 7.9%; (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.37 to 1.07; P < 0.001 for noninferiority)
  1. Note: DOACs Direct oral anticoagulants, VTE Venous thromboembolism, LMWH Low-molecular-weight heparin, PE Pulmonary embolism, DVT Deep venous thrombosis