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Table 1 Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Direct and Indirect ARDS

From: Prevalence, risk, and outcome of deep vein thrombosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome

Characteristic Total
(N = 225)
Direct ARDS
(N = 111)
Indirect
ARDS (N = 114)
P value
Age (years) 66 ± 17 64 ± 15 67 ± 18 0.192
Male, n (%) 144 (64.0) 84 (75.7) 60 (52.6) <  0.001
BMI 24.1 (21.6, 26.8) 24.0 (21.0, 26.2) 24.4 (21.9, 27.0) 0.274
Bedridden time (days) 8 (4, 15) 9 (5, 15) 8 (4, 16) 0.400
APACHE II score 23 (19, 28) 22 (17, 27) 25 (19, 31) 0.010
SOFA score 8 (5, 10) 6 (4, 6) 9 (6, 11) <  0.001
Laboratory data
 White blood cells (×109/L) 16.9 (12.0, 21.5) 14.3 (10.1, 20.3) 18.2 (14.4, 23.5) <  0.001
 Neutrophils (×109/L) 14.5 (10.4, 19.7) 12.8 (9.0, 17.7) 16.1 (12.6, 20.8) <  0.001
 Platelets (×109/L) 183.0 (101.0, 253.5) 190.0 (120.0, 270.0) 167.0 (73.8, 238.0) 0.094
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 120.0 (89.4, 120.0) 120.0 (85.0, 120.0) 120.0 (92.2, 120.0) 0.391
 Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 5.6 (2.0, 16.2) 4.1 (1.5, 13.5) 7.3 (3.0, 21.2) 0.008
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 116.7 (66.6, 209.5) 90.5 (65.0, 193.0) 136.9 (67.9, 248.8) 0.019
 D-dimer (μg/ml) 1.9 (0.9, 3.8) 1.3 (0.6, 2.5) 2.4 (1.3, 5.3) <  0.001
 PaO2/FiO2 158 (103, 199) 136 (80, 186) 170 (130, 208) <  0.001*
 Mild, n (%) 54 (24.0) 22 (19.8) 32 (28.1) <  0.001#
 Moderate, n (%) 116 (51.6) 49 (44.1) 67 (58.8)  
 Severe, n (%) 55 (24.4) 40 (36.0) 15 (13.2)  
 DVT, n (%) 90 (40.0%) 44 (39.6) 46 (40.4) 0.913
 ICU length of stay (days) 11 (6, 24) 13 (7, 25) 10 (5, 24) 0.103
 Hospital length of stay (days) 19 (12, 32) 17 (10, 29) 22 (13, 34) 0.055
 Mortality, n (%) 77 (34.2) 36 (32.4) 41 (36.0) 0.577
  1. Data are mean ± SD, median (IQR) or n (%). P values comparing Direct and Indirect ARDS groups were from a two-sample t-test, Mann- Whitney U test, or χ2 test. P <  0.05 was considered statistically significant
  2. *χ2 test comparing Direct and Indirect ARDS groups
  3. #χ2 test comparing all subcategories
  4. Abbreviations: APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, DVT deep venous thrombosis, FiO2, fraction of inspired oxygen, ICU intensive care unit, IQR interquartile range, mild 200 mmHg<PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg, moderate 100 mmHg<PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg, PaO2 partial pressure of arterial oxygen, SD standard deviation, severe PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 100 mmHg, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment