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Table 2 Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of DVT Vs Non-DVT Patients in Overall ARDS Cohort

From: Prevalence, risk, and outcome of deep vein thrombosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome

Characteristic Total DVT Non-DVT P value
(N = 225) (N = 90) (N = 135)  
Age (years) 66 ± 17 70 ± 13 63 ± 18 <  0.001
Male, n (%) 144 (64.0) 52 (57.8) 92 (68.1) 0.112
BMI 24.1 (21.6, 26.8) 24.0 (20.8, 26.0) 24.2 (22.0, 27.2) 0.146
Direct ARDS
 Pneumonia 96 (86.5) 40 (90.9) 56 (83.6) 0.412
 Aspiration 15 (13.5) 4 (9.1) 11 (16.4)  
Indirect ARDS
 Non-pulmonary sepsis 81 (71.1) 33 (71.7) 48 (70.6) 0.894
 Pancreatitis 33 (28.9) 13 (28.3) 20 (29.4)  
Bedridden time (days) 8 (4, 15) 10 (5, 18) 7 (4, 15) 0.216
Caprini score 7 (5, 9) 7 (5, 10) 7 (5, 9) 0.135
Padua prediction score 6 (5, 6) 6 (5, 8) 5 (5, 6) 0.023
APACHE II score 23 (19, 28) 24 (20, 28) 23 (18, 29) 0.596
SOFA score 8 (5, 10) 7 (5, 9) 8 (5, 11) 0.622
Laboratory data
 White blood cells (×109/L) 16.9 (12.0, 21.4) 16.5 (13.4, 21.0) 17.1 (11.6, 22.6) 0.733
 Neutrophils (×109/L) 14.5 (10.4, 19.7) 14.7 (11.4, 19.3) 14.4 (9.9, 20.1) 0.709
 Platelets (×109/L) 183.0 (101.0, 253.5) 196.5 (124.3, 263.3) 172.0 (84.0, 253.0) 0.141
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 120.0 (89.4, 120.0) 120.0 (82.0, 120.0) 120.0 (92.5, 120.0) 0.471
 Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 5.6 (2.0, 16.2) 12.7 (3.4, 21.5) 3.5 (1.5, 10.3) < 0.001
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 116.7 (66.6, 209.5) 95.1 (58.8, 165.5) 125.6 (70.6, 250.3) 0.007
 D-dimer (μg/ml) 1.9 (0.9, 3.8) 2.1 (0.9, 5.0) 1.8 (0.9, 3.3) 0.070
 PaO2 /FiO2 158 (103, 199) 137 (87, 179) 172 (116, 209) 0.002*
 Mild, n (%) 54 (24.0) 14 (15.6) 40 (29.6) 0.026#
 Moderate, n (%) 116 (51.6) 48 (53.3) 68 (50.4)  
 Severe, n (%) 55 (24.4) 28 (31.1) 27 (20.0)  
Treatments
 Glucocorticoid therapy, n (%) 51 (22.7) 22 (24.4) 29 (21.5) 0.603
 Immunoglobulin, n (%) 5 (2.2) 2 (2.2) 3 (2.2) 1.000
 Sedative therapy, n (%) 96 (42.7) 50 (55.6) 46 (34.1) 0.001
 Vasoactive agent therapy, n (%) 55 (24.4) 25 (27.8) 30 (22.2) 0.342
 CRRT, n (%) 33 (14.7) 10 (11.1) 23 (17.0) 0.218
 CVC, n (%) 125 (55.6) 55 (61.1) 70 (51.9) 0.171
 IMV, n (%) 122 (54.2) 66 (73.3) 56 (41.5) < 0.001
 Length of IMV (days) 3 (2, 7) 3 (2, 6) 3 (2, 8) 0.543
 Length of IMV ≥ 3 days, n (%) 80 (65.6) 43 (65.2) 37 (66.1) 0.915
 VTE prophylaxis, n (%) 135 (60.0) 50 (55.6) 85 (63.0) 0.267
 LMWH, n (%) 108 (48.0) 39 (43.3) 69 (51.1) 0.253
 LMWH + physical prophylaxis, n (%) 75 (33.5) 29 (32.6) 46 (34.1) 0.817
 Physical prophylaxis only, n (%) 23 (10.3) 9 (10.1) 14 (10.4) 0.950
ICU length of stay (days) 11 (6, 24) 12 (5, 24) 11 (6, 26) 0.563
Hospital length of stay (days) 19 (12, 32) 20 (11, 32) 19 (12, 31) 0.816
Mortality, n (%) 77 (34.2) 45 (50.0) 32 (23.7) < 0.001
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, median (IQR), or n (%). P values comparing DVT and non-DVT groups were from a two-sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, or Fisher exact test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  2. *χ2 test comparing DVT and non-DVT groups
  3. #χ2 test comparing all subcategories
  4. Abbreviations: APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, CVC central venous catheterization, DVT deep venous thrombosis, FiO2 fraction of inspired oxygen, ICU intensive care unit, IMV invasive mechanical ventilation, IQR interquartile range, LMWH low molecular weight heparin, mild 200 mmHg<PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg, moderate 100 mmHg<PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg, PaO2 partial pressure of arterial oxygen, SD standard deviation, severe PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 100 mmHg, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, VTE venous thromboembolism