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Table 4 Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of DVT Vs Non-DVT Patients in Direct and Indirect ARDS Cohorts

From: Prevalence, risk, and outcome of deep vein thrombosis in acute respiratory distress syndrome

Characteristics Direct ARDS (n = 111) Indirect ARDS (n = 114)
DVT
(n = 44)
Non-DVT
(n = 67)
P
Value
DVT
(n = 46)
Non-DVT
(n = 68)
P
value
Age (years) 68 ± 11 62 ± 17 0.015 72 ± 15 64 ± 19 0.009
Male, n (%) 32 (72.7) 52 (77.6) 0.557 20 (43.5) 40 (58.8) 0.107
BMI 23.5 (20.6, 25.2) 24.2 (22.2, 27.2) 0.076 24.5 (21.3, 26.8) 24.0 (22.0, 27.3) 0.716
Bedridden time (days) 9 (6, 17) 9 (5, 15) 0.431 10 (4, 19) 7 (4, 14) 0.356
Caprini score 7 (5, 8) 7 (5, 9) 0.891 9 (6, 11) 7 (5,10) 0.021
Padua prediction score 5 (5, 6) 5 (5, 6) 0.689 7 (5, 8) 6 (4, 7) 0.008
APACHE II score 22 (17, 26) 21 (16, 27) 0.568 25 (21, 30) 25 (19, 32) 0.913
SOFA score 6 (5, 9) 6 (4, 10) 0.780 9 (7, 10) 9 (6,11) 0.772
Laboratory data
 White blood cells (×109/L) 14.5 (10.0, 18.3) 14.1 (10.2, 20.7) 0.921 18.4 (15.0, 21.5) 18.1 (13.1, 24.2) 0.630
 Neutrophils (×109/L) 12.8 (9.1, 16.8) 12.8 (8.9, 18.0) 0.935 16.1 (13.3, 19.8) 16.1 (11.0, 21.8) 0.669
 Platelets (× 109/L) 193.5 (155.3, 279.0) 181.0 (108.0, 257.0) 0.301 202.0 (84.3, 246.5) 148.5 (70.8, 234.0) 0.267
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 120.0 (82, 120.0) 120.0 (89.0,120.0) 0.490 120.0 (86.8, 120.0) 120.0 (94.4, 120.0) 0.758
 Procalcitonin (ng/mL) 8.3 (2.6, 17.6) 2.6 (1.1, 9.6) 0.002 15.0 (4.9, 25.0) 4.9 (2.6, 13.5) 0.001
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L) 77.3 (56.2, 122.4) 119.0 (70.6, 225.1) 0.003 135.5 (67.3, 208.8) 140.7 (70.0, 275.7) 0.377
 D-dimer (μg/ml) 1.8 (0.7, 3.2) 1.2 (0.6, 2.1) 0.211 3.2 (1.6, 7.3) 2.1 (1.3, 4.7) 0.123
 PaO2/FiO2 111 (71, 176) 150 (86, 203) 0.035* 152 (117, 184) 179 (140, 217) 0.017*
 Mild, n (%) 5 (11.4) 17 (25.4) 0.062# 9 (19.6) 23 (33.8) 0.249#
 Moderate, n (%) 18 (40.9) 31 (46.3)   30 (65.2) 37 (54.4)  
 Severe, n (%) 21 (47.7) 19 (28.4) 7 (15.2) 8 (11.8) 21 (47.7) 19 (28.4)   7 (15.2) 8 (11.8)  
Treatments
 Glucocorticoid therapy, n (%) 16 (36.4) 15 (22.4) 0.108 6 (13.0) 14 (20.6) 0.299
 Immunoglobulin, n (%) 1 (2.3) 2 (3.0) 1.000 1 (2.2) 1 (1.5) 1.000
 Sedative therapy, n (%) 25 (56.8) 25 (37.3) 0.043 25 (54.3) 21 (30.9) 0.012
 Vasoactive agent therapy, n (%) 10 (22.7) 12 (17.9) 0.533 15 (32.6) 18 (26.5) 0.478
 CRRT, n (%) 3 (6.8) 9 (13.4) 0.432 7 (15.2) 14 (20.6) 0.468
 CVC, n (%) 19 (43.2) 26 (38.8) 0.646 36 (78.3) 44 (64.7) 0.121
 IMV, n (%) 34 (77.3) 31 (46.3) 0.001 32 (69.6) 25 (36.8) 0.001
 Length of IMV (days) 3 (2, 6) 3 (2, 10) 0.646 3 (2, 7) 3 (2, 8) 0.586
 Length of IMV ≥ 3 days, n (%) 21 (61.8) 19 (61.3) 0.969 22 (68.8) 18 (72.0) 0.790
 Mortality, n (%) 21 (47.7) 15 (22.4) 0.005 24 (52.2) 17 (25.0) 0.003
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, median (IQR), or n (%). P values comparing DVT and non-DVT groups were from a two-sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, or Fisher exact test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  2. *χ2 test comparing DVT and non-DVT groups
  3. #χ2 test comparing all subcategories
  4. Abbreviations: APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, CVC central venous catheterization, DVT deep venous thrombosis, FiO2, fraction of inspired oxygen, ICU intensive care unit, IMV invasive mechanical ventilation, IQR interquartile range, LMWH low molecular weight heparin, mild 200 mmHg<PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mmHg, moderate 100 mmHg<PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 200 mmHg, PaO2 partial pressure of arterial oxygen, SD standard deviation, severe, PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 100 mmHg, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, VTE venous thromboembolism