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Table 1 Studies included in the review

From: Low risk of haematomas with intramuscular vaccines in anticoagulated patients: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Study Sample size Mean/
median age
Anticoagulant Indication for anticoagulation Vaccine used and route(s) of administration Follow-up
Patriarca 1983 33 Not reported Warfarin Not reported Influenza vaccination
Route not reported
30 days
Lipsky 1984 21 62.5 years Warfarin Not reported Influenza vaccine
Route not reported
28-30 days
Kramer 1984 8 Not reported Warfarin Not reported Influenza vaccine
Route not reported
21 days
Gomolin 1985 15 Not specified (geriatric) Warfarin Not reported Influenza vaccine
Route not reported
21 days
Weibert 1986 13  N/R Warfarin Not reported Influenza vaccine
Route not reported
14 days
Bussey 1988 24 60.3 years Warfarin Not reported Influenza vaccine
Route not reported
, 4 months
Arnold 1990 9 68 years Warfarin Not reported Influenza vaccine
Route not reported
30 days
Raj 1995 41 65.7 years Warfarin Not reported Influenza vaccine
Route: im
14 days
Delafuente 1998 36 68 years Warfarin Not reported Influenza vaccine
Route: im vs. sc
4 months
Paliani 2003 90 74 years Warfarin (98%), acenocoumarol (2%) Not reported Influenza vaccine
Route: im
7-10 days
Ballester Torrens 2005 59 72.4 years Not specified Atrial fibrillation (majority), valvular prosthesis (10%) Influenza vaccine
Route: im vs. sc
7 months
MacCallum 2007 106
(INR analysis only 78)
73.7 years Warfarin Not reported Influenza vaccination
Route not known, possibly im
3 months
Casajuana 2008 229 73.6 years Acenocoumarol (98%), warfarin (2%) Atrial fibrillation (70%), valvular heart disease (17%), ischemic heart disease (12%) Influenza vaccine.
Route: im vs. sc
10 days
Iorio 2010 104 71.3 years Warfarin Atrial fibrillation (54%), venous tromboembolism (14%), aortic valve prosthesis (12%), dilated cardiomyopathy (12%), mitral valve prosthesis (6%), mitral and aortic valve prosthesis (2%) Influenza vaccine
Route: im
28 days
Van Aalsburg 2011 19 (im)
9 (sc)
65 years (im)
57 years (sc)
89% oral anticoagulants, 11% combination platelet anti-aggregate therapy Not reported DTP, HepA, Hib, typhoid fever vaccine, combination of HepA and HepB
Route: im
HepA
Route: sc
3 days
Bauman 2016 28 5 years Warfarin Congenital heart disease (86%), Kawasaki syndrome (7%), others Influenza vaccine (82%), combinations of PCV, DTaP-IPV, MMR, MMRV, MenC, Hib, HepA, HepB, palivizumab
Route: im, sc
6 days (1-14 days)
  1. BCR British Corrected Ratio, DOACs direct oral anticoagulants, DTP diphtheria, tetanus and polio virus vaccine, DTaP-IPV diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, inactivated polio virus combination vaccine, Hib Hemophilus influenzae type B vaccine, HepA hepatitis A vaccine, HepB hepatitis B vaccine, im intramuscular, INR International Normalized Ratio, MenC conjugate meningococcal type C vaccine, MMR measles, mumps and rubella vaccine, MMRV measles, mumps rubella and varicella vaccine, PCV pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, sc subcutaneous