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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with ARDS caused by COVID-19 and bacterial pneumonia

From: Comparison of deep vein thrombosis risks in acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19 and bacterial pneumonia: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic Total
(N = 240)
Bacterial pneumonia
(N = 135)
COVID-19
(N = 105)
P value
Age, y 64.3 ± 14.2 64.8 ± 15.1 63.6 ± 13.1 0.522
Male 161 (67.1) 101 (74.8) 60 (57.1) 0.004
BMI, kg/m2 23.6 ± 3.4 23.7 ± 3.9 23.6 ± 2.7 0.977
Bed time ≥ 3 days 189 (78.8) 117 (86.7) 72 (68.6) 0.001
Hospital stays, d 23 (13, 38) 18 (11, 29) 31 (18, 41) <  0.001
ARDS to DVT or last US scan, d 7 (3, 13) 5 (2, 12) 10 (6, 14) <  0.001
Median number of US scans 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 1) <  0.001
DVT Wells score 1 (1, 2) 1 (1, 1) 1 (0, 2) 0.004
Padua prediction score 5 (5, 6) 5 (5, 6) 5 (4, 6) 0.171
APACHE II score 16 (12, 23) 22 (17, 27) 11 (11, 13) <  0.001
SOFA score 5 (4, 10) 6 (4, 10) 4 (3, 12) 0.012
Underlying disease
  Smoke 84 (35.0) 76 (56.3) 8 (7.6) <  0.001
  Chronic respiratory disease 32 (13.3) 25 (18.5) 7 (6.7) 0.007
  Hypertension 103 (42.9) 60 (44.4) 43 (41.0) 0.588
  Coronary heart disease 39 (16.3) 24 (17.8) 15 (14.3) 0.467
  Diabetes 54 (22.5) 33 (24.4) 21 (20.0) 0.413
  Cerebral vascular disease 31 (12.9) 27 (20.0) 4 (3.8) <  0.001
  Chronic liver disease 5 (2.1) 2 (1.5) 3 (2.9) 0.656
  Chronic kidney disease 16 (6.7) 13 (9.6) 3 (2.9) 0.037
Symptoms of onset
 Fever 222 (92.5) 128 (94.8) 94 (89.5) 0.123
 Cough 188 (78.3) 114 (84.4) 74 (70.5) 0.009
 Dyspnea 198 (82.5) 130 (96.3) 68 (64.8) <  0.001
DVT symptoms 46 (19.2) 27 (20.0) 19 (18.1) 0.710
 Edema of lower extremities 42 (17.5) 27 (20.0) 15 (14.3) 0.248
 Leg pain 6 (2.5) 2 (1.5) 4 (3.8) 0.408
Arterial blood gas analysis
  PaO2/FiO2, mm Hg 135 (81, 195) 137 (80, 188) 130 (81, 197) 0.858
Hematologic and infection-related indices
  White blood cell count, × 109/L 10.9 (7.23, 16.0) 14.4 (10.1, 19.0) 8.1 (5.7, 10.9) <  0.001
  Neutrophil count, ×109/L 9.7 (5.9, 14.2) 12.8 (9.0, 17.3) 6.5 (4.2, 9.6) <  0.001
  Lymphocyte count, × 109/L 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.8 (0.5, 1.2) 0.8 (0.5, 1.1) 0.528
  Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio 12.5 (7.1, 21.0) 15.1 (8.7, 23.7) 8.9 (4.7, 15.1) <  0.001
  Platelet count, ×109/L 190 (133, 263) 185 (115, 261) 190 (144, 270) 0.205
  Hemoglobin, g/L 116 (99, 130) 112 (87, 130) 118 (108, 132) 0.021
  C-reactive protein, mg/L 99.5 (51.8, 120.0) 120.0 (82.0,120.0) 58.0 (20.7, 99.5) <  0.001
  Serum procalcitonin, ng/L 0.8 (0.1, 4.2) 3.2 (1.2, 11.3) 0.1 (0.1, 0.4) <  0.001
Biochemical test
  Total protein, g/L 57.6 (50.9, 63.2) 53.0 (47.0, 59.0) 60.8 (57.6, 65.3) <  0.001
  Albumin, g/L 26.3 (23.6, 29.9) 25.3 (23.0, 29.6) 27.3 (24.2, 30.2) 0.007
  Aspartate aminotransferase, U/L 35.0 (25.5, 58.0) 40.8 (26.0, 71.7) 33.0 (24.0, 44.0) 0.008
  Alanine aminotransferase, U/L 33.2 (19.6, 60.2) 29.7 (17.9, 58.8) 35.0 (26.0, 62.0) 0.101
  Total bilirubin, μmol/L 14.2 (10.1, 20.3) 15.2 (10.7, 22.8) 13.6 (9.2, 17.0) 0.006
  Direct bilirubin, μmol/L 4.8 (3.1, 7.3) 5.2 (3.3, 8.4) 4.5 (3.0, 6.2) 0.038
  Lactate dehydrogenase, U/L 354.0 (234.3, 546.0) 350.0 (239.0, 624.8) 354.0 (224.0, 511.0) 0.360
  Blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L 7.54 (4.80, 13.78) 10.21 (5.39, 17.42) 6.50 (4.21, 9.21) <  0.001
  Serum creatinine, μmol/L 73.5 (56.7, 125.8) 89.1 (62.4, 193.0) 64.3 (53.7, 75.5) <  0.001
  eGFR, mL/min/1.73m2 88.3 (44.2, 104.2) 71.6 (29.2, 102.0) 95.6 (80.8, 106.9) <  0.001
  CK-MB, U/L 16.2 (10.8, 29.7) 16.2 (11.0, 26.9) 16.2 (10.0, 31.0) 0.812
Coagulation function
  D-dimer, μg/mL 1.8 (0.7, 4.6) 1.5 (0.6, 2.6) 2.8 (1.1, 8.0) <  0.001
  Prothrombin time, s 13.6 (12.60, 15.1) 13.5 (12.3, 15.2) 13.6 (12.7, 14.9) 0.193
  Activated partial
thromboplastin time, s
33.7 (29.7, 38.1) 32.1 (28.7, 35.7) 34.8 (32.5, 39.2) <  0.001
DVT 116 (48.3) 56 (41.5) 60 (57.1) 0.016
 Proximal DVT 22 (9.2) 6 (4.4) 16 (15.2) 0.004
 Distal DVT 94 (39.2) 50 (37.0) 44 (41.9) 0.443
 Muscular calf vein thrombosis only 77 (32.1) 38 (28.1) 39 (37.1) 0.139
Treatments
 Glucocorticoid therapy 90 (37.5) 40 (29.6) 50 (47.6) 0.004
 Immunoglobulin therapy 56 (23.3) 3 (2.2) 53 (50.5) <  0.001
 CVC 82 (34.2) 45 (33.3) 37 (35.2) 0.758
 CRRT 22 (9.2) 12 (8.9) 10 (9.5) 0.866
 IMV 103 (42.9) 79 (58.5) 24 (22.9) <  0.001
 Sedative therapy 86 (35.8) 62 (45.9) 24 (22.9) <  0.001
 Vasoactive drugs 64 (26.7) 27 (20.0) 37 (35.2) 0.008
VTE prophylaxis 137 (57.1) 64 (47.4) 73 (69.5) 0.001
 LMWH 117 (48.8) 55 (40.7) 62 (59.0) 0.005
 LMWH + physical 80 (33.3) 40 (29.6) 40 (38.1) 0.168
 Physical prophylaxis only 19 (7.9) 8 (5.9) 11 (10.5) 0.195
28-day mortality 73 (30.4) 46 (34.1) 27 (25.7) 0.163
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD, median (IQR), or n (%). P values comparing DVT and non-DVT groups were from a two-sample t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, or Fisher exact test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant
  2. Abbreviations: APACHE Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, ARDS acute respiratory distress syndrome, BMI body mass index, CK creatine kinase isoenzyme, COVID-19 coronavirus disease 2019, CRRT continuous renal replacement therapy, CVC central venous catheterization, DVT deep venous thrombosis, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, FiO2 a fraction of inspired oxygen, IMV invasive mechanical ventilation, IQR interquartile range, LMWH low molecular weight heparin, PaO2 partial pressure of arterial oxygen, PE pulmonary embolism, SD standard deviation, SOFA Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, US ultrasound, VTE venous thromboembolism