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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and survival

From: Predictive ability of viscoelastic testing using ClotPro® for short-term outcome in patients with severe Covid-19 ARDS with or without ECMO therapy: a retrospective study

  All patients Survivors Non-Survivors p
n 55 25 (45%) 30 (55%)  
Male 43 (78%) 17 (68%) 26 (87%) 0.090
Age [years] 65 (58; 69) 63 (57; 68) 68 (61; 71)  < 0.05
Body-Mass-Index [kg/m2] 28 (25; 36) 31 (25; 36) 28 (25; 31) 0.723
Time from first symptom to hospital admission [days] 6 (4; 10) 6 (4; 8) 7 (4; 10) 0.416
Time from first symptom to ICU admission [days] 10 (6; 14) 10 (6; 15) 9 (6; 14) 0.442
Time from first symptom to invasive ventilation [days] 10 (6; 15) 10 (6; 17) 11 (7; 14) 0.629
Time from first symptom to ECMO therapy [days] 17 (13; 23) 19 (11; 23) 16 (14; 21) 0.769
Time from first symptom to admission to our ICU [days] 12 (7; 17) 13 (8; 18) 12 (7; 16) 0.741
Nosocomial infection 8 (15%) 3 (12%) 5 (17%) 0.841
UFH dose [IE/h] * 1500 (1100; 1900) 1600 (1100; 1900) 1450 (1050; 1750) 0.327
UFH dose [IE/kg/h] * 17 (11; 20) 18 (14; 21) 15 (9; 20) 0.203
LMWH dose [mg/d] * 120 (100; 180) 120 (80; 120) 130 (120; 180) 0.329
LMWH dose [mg/kg/d] * 1.5 (1.1; 2) 1.2 (1.1; 1.2) 1.6 (1.5; 2.0) 0.429
Prophylactic ACT * 12 (22%) 5 (20%) 7 (23%) 0.514
Intermediate ACT * 26 (47%) 14 (56%) 12 (40%) 0.181
Therapeutic ACT * 17 (30%) 6 (24%) 11 (37%) 0.237
VV-ECMO therapy 22 (40%) 12 (48%) 10 (33%) 0.269
Direct transfer to our ICU from other hospital 34 (62%) 17 (68%) 17 (57%) 0.389
Invasive mechanical ventilation before admission to our ICU 13 (24%) 13 (52%) 0  < 0.05
SOFA score [points] * 11 (10; 13) 10 (9; 11) 12 (11; 14)  < 0.05
Horovitz – Index at admission to our ICU without patients under ECMO therapy [mmHg] 146 (114; 219) 204 (138; 220) 129 (111; 179) 0.118
ARDS level mild * 11 (20%) 7 (28%) 4 (13%) 0.176
ARDS level moderate * 19 (35%) 5 (20%) 14 (47%)  < 0.05
ARDS level severe * 25 (45%) 13 (52%) 12 (40%) 0.373
Norepinephrine [mg/h] * 0.5 (0.3; 1.1) 0.4 (0.15; 0.7) 0.8 (0.4; 1.4)  < 0.05
Norepinephrine [µg/kg/min] * 0.09 (0.05; 0.24) 0.07 (0.02; 0.12) 0.14 (0.07; 0.31)  < 0.05
Charlson comorbidity index [points] 3 (2; 5) 3 (2; 5) 3 (2; 6) 0.148
Terminal renal insufficiency with need of Renal Replacement Therapy 3 (6%) 0 3 (10%) 0.147
Systemic thrombolysis before admission to our ICU 3 (6%) 1 (4%) 2 (7%) 0.569
Oral anticoagulation before hospital admission 5 (9%) 4 (17%) 1 (3%) 0.122
Single platelet inhibition before hospital admission 10 (18%) 5 (20%) 5 (17%) 0.510
Dual platelet inhibition before hospital admission 1 (2%) 0 1 (3%) 0.545
All Patients with complications related to coagulopathy* 31 (56%) 15 (60%) 16 (53%) 0.412
All patients with bleeding complications 10 (18%) 5 (20%) 5 (17%) 0.510
BARC-classification II 4 (7%) 2 (8%) 2 (7%) 0.622
BARC-classification III-V 8 (15%) 4 (16%) 4 (13%) 0.573
All ATE/VTE during hospital stay 27 (49%) 14 (56%) 13 (43%) 0.620
ATE/VTE diagnosed before admission to our ICU 22 (40%) 11 (44%) 11 (37%) 0.391
New ATE/VTE diagnosed during stay on our ICU 5 (9%) 3 (12%) 2 (7%) 0.412
  1. * at day of VET (equals admission to our ICU)
  2. ICU Intensive Care Unit, (VV-)ECMO, (venovenous-)Extracorporeal Membrane-Oxygenation, UFH Unfractionated Heparin, LMWH Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin, ACT Anticoagulation Therapy, cCUS Complete Compression Ultrasound, CTA Computed Tomography Angiography, SOFA Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment, ARDS Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, BARC Bleeding Academic Research Consortium, ATE/VTE Arterial/Venous Thromboembolism, VET Viscoelastic Testing