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Table 1 Comparison of patient characteristics between patients with and without major bleeding

From: Incidence, risk factors, and clinical impact of major bleeding in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a sub-analysis of the CLOT-COVID Study

  Total
(N = 2882)
Patients with major bleeding
(N = 57)
Patients without major bleeding
(N = 2825)
P value
Baseline characteristics
 Age (years) 52.7 ± 17.9 61.7 ± 14.6 52.5 ± 17.9 <0.001
 Men 1877 (65.1%) 42 (73.7%) 1835 (65.0%) 0.17
 Body weight (kg) 68.8 ± 18.4 70.1 ± 14.4 68.8 ± 18.5 0.62
 Height (cm) 164.3 ± 12.4 164.1 ± 8.7 164.3 ± 12.4 0.88
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.3 ± 5.4 25.9 ± 4.6 25.2 ± 5.4 0.39
  Body mass index > 30 kg/m2 456 (15.8%) 11 (19.3%) 445 (15.8%) 0.47
 D-dimer level at admission (μg/mL) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 1.6 (0.9–4.3) 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.05
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 869 (30.2%) 33 (57.9%) 836 (29.6%) <0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 595 (20.6%) 21 (36.8%) 574 (20.3%) 0.002
 Heart disease 254 (8.8%) 12 (21.1%) 242 (8.6%) 0.001
 Respiratory disease 298 (10.3%) 9 (15.8%) 289 (10.2%) 0.17
 Active cancer 60 (2.1%) 2 (3.5%) 58 (2.1%) 0.45
 History of major bleeding 26 (0.9%) 5 (8.8%) 21 (0.7%) <0.001
 History of VTE 15 (0.5%) 0 (0%) 15 (0.5%) 0.58
Severity of COVID-19 at admission
 Mild 1732 (60.1%) 8 (14.0%) 1724 (61.0%) <0.001
 Moderate (Need oxygen) 922 (32.0%) 21 (36.8%) 901 (31.9%)
 Severe (Need mechanical ventilation or ECMO) 228 (7.9%) 28 (49.1%) 200 (7.1%)
Worst severity of COVID-19 during hospitalization
 Mild 1278 (44.3%) 4 (7.0%) 1274 (45.1%) <0.001
 Moderate (Need oxygen) 1225 (42.5%) 14 (24.6%) 1211 (42.9%)
 Severe (Need mechanical ventilation or ECMO) 379 (13.2%) 39 (68.4%) 340 (12.0%)
Pharmacological thromboprophylaxis regimens
 Non-anticoagulants 1649 (57.2%) 6 (10.5%) 1643 (58.2%) <0.001
 Anticoagulants 1233 (42.8%) 51 (89.5%) 1182 (41.8%)
  Prophylactic dose (LMWH or UFH) 889/1233 (72.1%) 20/51 (39.2%) 869/1182 (73.5%) -
  Therapeutic dose (UFH) 161/1233 (13.1%) 26/51 (51.0%) 135/1182 (11.4%) -
  Therapeutic dose (Warfarin or DOAC) 183/1233 (14.8%) 5/51 (9.8%) 178/1182 (15.1%) -
  1. LMWH was used with a prophylactic dose alone since its use as a therapeutic dose is not allowed in Japan. Regarding UFH, its prophylactic dose was defined as the administration of a fixed dose without reference to the APTT while the therapeutic dose was defined as administration of a therapeutic dose with reference to the APTT
  2. VTE Venous thromboembolism, COVID-19, Coronavirus disease 2019, ECMO Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, APTT Activated partial thromboplastin time, CT Computed tomography, LMWH Low molecular weight heparin, UFH Unfractionated heparin, DOAC Direct oral anticoagulant