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Table 3 Results of traditional meta-analysis and meta-regression analyses of time in the therapeutic range

From: Quality of vitamin K antagonist control and outcomes in atrial fibrillation patients: a meta-analysis and meta-regression

   Time spent in therapeutic range
Study-level factors No. (%) Unadjusted pooled mean upon subgroup analysis, % (95% CI) Adjusted difference, % (95% CI) p-v alue
All study groups 78 (100) 61 (59 to 62) NA NA
Study setting     
  AC Clinic 25 (32.1) 64 (62 to 66) 7.2 (3.2 to 11.2) <0.001
  RCT 26 (33.3) 63 (61 to 65) 9.1 (4.3 to 13.9) <0.001
  Community 27 (34.6) 55 (52 to 59) Referent  
Study year     
  1990-2000 10 (12.8) 53 (46 to 61) −4.3 (−10.2 to 1.6) 0.16
  2001-2007 34 (43.6) 64 (62 to 65) 2.2 (−1.7 to 6.1) 0.28
  2008-2013 34 (43.6) 60 (57 to 63) Referent
Interpolation method     
  NR/Other 11 (14.1) 63 (60 to 65) −2.1 (−6.8 to 2.6) 0.38
  Linear 67 (85.9) 60 (59 to 62) Referent  
Self-management     
  No 77 (98.7) 60 (58 to 62) −6.8 (−23.7 to 10.1) 0.43
  Yes 1 (1.3) 72 (68 to 77) Referent  
Geographic region     
  Europe/UK 35 (44.9) 67 (64 to 69) 9.7 (6.0 to 13.4) <0.001
  Asia 3 (3.8) 47 (44 to 49) −5.5 (−14.7 to 3.7) 0.24
  Other 1 (1.3) 49 (46 to 52) −3.0 (−16.1 to 10.1) 0.65
  Multinational 13 (16.7) 61 (57 to 65) 1.8 (−4.1 to 7.7) 0.55
  North America 26 (33.3) 55 (50 to 60) Referent  
VKA experience     
  NR/Mixed 21 (26.9) 54 (49 to 60) −4.6 (−8.3 to −0.9) 0.02
  No 17 (21.8) 63 (60 to 66) −5.3 (−9.6 to −1.0) 0.02
  Yes 40 (51.3) 63 (60 to 66) Referent  
Duration of VKA treatment     
  ≥1 year 59 (75.6) 62 (60 to 63) 2.7 (−1.7 to 7.1) 0.23
  <1 year 19 (24.4) 58 (52 to 65) Referent  
  1. AC = anticoagulation; CI = confidence interval; NA = not applicable; No. = number of study arms; NR = Not Reported; RCT = randomized controlled trial; UK = United Kingdom, VKA = Vitamin K Antagonists.