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Table 2 Studies that measure activated protein C

From: Activated protein C plays no major roles in the inhibition of coagulation or increased fibrinolysis in acute coagulopathy of trauma-shock: a systematic review

Reference (year) Design Patients (n) Inclusion criteria Injury Severity Score (ISS) Sampling time (n) Trauma-induced coagulopathy
Mean (SD) or median (25–75% quartile)
[35] (2011)   80 Full trauma activation ACOTS 34(30–43) Non-ACOTS 17(10–25) Median 68 min post injury (1) ACOTS
[36] (2012) Prospective cohort (s) 203 Highest-level trauma team activation 25.2 (13.8) On arrival at ED 6,12,24 h after admission (4) Acute traumatic coagulopathy
[37] (2012) Prospective 132 Highest-level trauma activation system High histone 30.5(13.0) Low histone 22.8(13.1) Within 10 min of ED arrival 6 h after admission (2) Traumatic injury
[38] (2013) Prospective cohort (m) 80 Full trauma team activation iTBI 35(32–37) sTBI + extracranial injury (sTBI/E) 25(15–26) Non-TBI 10(7–22) Within 2 h after injury (1) ACOTS
[39] (2013) A subset of PROMMT 1198 Highest-level trauma activation PTINR Coagulopathic 31.1(15.5) Non-coagulopathic 23.9(14.4) APTT Coagulopathic 35.6(16.6) Non-coagulopathic 24.6(14.0) Not shown Acute traumatic coagulopathy
[40] (2016) Prospective (1) 57 Severe trauma ISS > 9, at least 1 AIS > 3 ACOTS Non-ACOTS, not shown Within 12 h after arrival to ED (1) ACOTS
[41] (2017) Prospective cohort (s) 300 Full trauma activation ATC 23(10–34) Non-ATC 9(4–22) Within 20 min of arrival in the ED (1) Acute traumatic coagulopathy
[42] (2013) Prospective (s) 57 Severe trauma ISS > 9, at least 1 AIS > 3 ACOTS Non-ACOTS, not shown Within 12 h after arrival to ED (1) ACOTS